• Paired Associative Learning (PAL): The task involves learning to associate visual stimuli with distinct spatial locations. This task has been shown to be sensitive for detecting age-related cognitive impairment, predictive for subsequent development of AD.
  • Delayed Matching to Sample (DMTS): Delayed matching to sample tasks have been used extensively in monkeys to study non-spatial working memory, a critical component of cognition.
  • Five-choice Serial reaction Time (5-CSRT): This task have been extensively used in rodents, monkeys and human to asses several aspects of attentional performance.
  • Variable Delayed Response (VDR): This is a spatial working memory task with attentional and memory components.
  • Attentional Set Shifting/Intra-Extra Dimensional shift (ID/ED): This task is based on the principle of the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test. It assesses aspects of executive functioning including cognitive flexibility, set shifting ability and concept formation.
  • Continuous Performance Task (CPT): This task assesses selective and sustained attention.

Object Retrieval (OR) Task

  • Test of prefrontal cortex-dependent cognition (cortically lesioned animals show a deficit in this task; hippocampal lesions have no effect)
  • Captures attention, response-inhibition and motor planning (i.e. executive function)
  • Attention, response-inhibition (impulse control) and motor planning are impaired in PD
  • MPTP-lesioned primates display deficits in the OR task.
  • Ketamine and scopolamine treated primates display deficits in the OR task.